How to load data from Square to SQL Data Warehouse
Square is a simple and powerful POS software for businesses. What if I want to get more data-driven and gather all my data from Square to my BI or custom analytics stack or to my data warehouse like SQL Data Warehouse? How can I analyze the data generated with Square? This guide will provide you with a clear picture of how to load data from Square to SQL Data Warehouse. We will use Square’s API to access and extract e-mail related data and load it into SQL Data Warehouse for further analysis.
You will need to write the code to get the data and ensure that this process will run every time new data are generated. Alternatively, you can use products like RudderStack that can handle this kind of problem automatically for you.
What is Square?
Square is a simple and powerful POS software for businesses. It is designed to run on multiple devices, ranging from smartphones to a merchant’s counter, without requiring specialized equipment. As a Point of Sale software, it takes care of:
Digital receipts from your customers
Your product inventory
Valuable analytics that you can use to understand the performance of your business better
Square is suitable for both big and small businesses and scales according to your needs as a product.
The Point of Sale software of Square is free to download and use, it charges on a per transaction basis. Square charges a flat, fixed rate of 2.75% of volume for all Visa, MasterCard, Discover, American Express, and other vendors transactions.
Additionally to the POS software, Square has a number of additional products, ranging from hardware that is needed for POS like:
Contactless chip readers to support EMV and NFC payments
or even stands to transform an iPad into a POS
to Payment and accounting related services like:
Gift card management
Square has transformed from a POS software vendor to a complete payment platform which includes:
An app marketplace
and even appointment services
Finally, it offers a gateway to sell goods online, services to add the delivery for restaurants, and funding for small businesses.
As a platform, Square exposes a rich API that can be used to build applications that can be delivered via its app marketplace. This API is expressive enough to allow us to pull data that can be used for analytics. In this article, we will explore how we can use the Square API to pull this data.
How to Extract my data from Square?
As a platform, Square exposes a number of different APIs that cover different needs.
E-commerce API, with which you can take payments using
Register API, which can be used to build your own applications for in-store or mobile payments.
Item & inventory management API.
Sales reporting & Analytics API.
Employee management API.
Square is currently maintaining two versions of the API, Connect v1 and Connect v2. There’s also an SDK for the Register API. You might need to use both v1 and v2 of the Connect API, as not all endpoints have been implemented in the second and newest version. Mixing the two API versions is encouraged by Square.
All the APIs that Square exposes are web APIs. As Web APIs following the RESTful architecture principles, they can be accessed through HTTP. As a RESTful API, interacting with it can be achieved using tools like CURL or Postman or using HTTP clients for your favorite language or framework. A few suggestions:
Because of the popularity of Square, a number of unofficial libraries/SDKs are also implemented, so a quick search on Google or Github will help you find a library for your favorite framework or language.
Square API Authentication
In order to use the Square API you first need to register a new application with Square. By doing that you are also generating credentials that will be used to access the API endpoints.
Click New Application and enter a name for your application.
Click Create App.
The application dashboard displays your new app’s credentials. One of these credentials is the personal access token. This token gives your application full access to your own Square account. Copy its value to use in the next step.
Square API Rate Limiting
If Connect API endpoints receive too many requests associated with the same application or access token in a short time window, they might respond with a 429 Too Many Requests error. If this occurs, try your request again at a later time. The current rate is on the order of 10 QPS. This might change in the future and is not officially documented to handle our requests and responses properly.
Pull Data From the Square Platform
As mentioned earlier, Square exposes a number of APIs for different applications. Thus, each one offers different opportunities for pulling useful data out of it. In this post, we will focus on how to get meaningful data out of the Square Connect API that can be used for analytics.
The Square Connect API allows us to use the Square platform to execute payment transactions, so many endpoints are related to these tasks. We do not need to access these endpoints for analytic purposes. In a payment system, what we need to track and use as data for further analysis is related to what is happening on our system. For example, we would like to track when a new payment had happened, when something went wrong with a transaction, etc. To do that, we need to monitor the system for specific events and make sure that we store these events in a data warehouse solution like SQL Data Warehouse for further analysis.
Square Connect API offers a notification through the Webhooks mechanism to receive notifications any time an important event happens in our system. We can use this mechanism to track and record events from the Square Platform for analytics. We can receive real-time webhook notifications as a merchant accepts payments. Get started with webhooks with the following steps:
By doing the above, we request the Square Connect API to notify us every time a new payment is happening to track these events. The API is near real-time, and you will receive the notification in no more than 60 seconds from the moment it happens.
The event that will be sent to our Webhook will look like this:
As the above event does not include information that can be used directly, we will have to extract the “entity_id” value and use it to poll the RetrieveTransaction endpoint to get the full details of the event. If we do that we will get a full response like the following: