The RudderStack Python SDK lets you track your customer event data from your Python applications and send it to your specified destinations via RudderStack.

Check out the GitHub codebase to get a more hands-on understanding of the SDK.

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SDK setup requirements

To set up the RudderStack Python SDK, the following prerequisites must be met:

Python source write key
  • You will also need a data plane URL. Refer to the Glossary for more information on the data plane URL and where to find it.
The Setup tab in the RudderStack dashboard (seen above) has an SDK installation snippet containing both the write key and the data plane URL. You can use it to integrate the Python SDK into your application.

Installing the Python SDK

To install the RudderStack Python SDK using pip, run the following command:

pip install rudder-sdk-python

Initializing the RudderStack client

To initialize the RudderStack client, run the following code snippet:

import rudder_analytics
rudder_analytics.write_key = WRITE_KEY
rudder_analytics.data_plane_url = DATA_PLANE_URL

Sending events from the RudderStack client

Once the RudderStack client is initialized, you can use it to send your customer events.

A sample track call is as shown :

rudder_analytics.track('developer_user_id', 'Simple Track Event', {
'key1': 'val1'
})

Identify

The identify call lets you identify a visiting user and capture any related information such as their name, email address, etc.

RudderStack does not store the user state in any of the server-side SDKs. Unlike the client-side SDKs that deal with only a single user at a given time, the server-side SDKs deal with multiple users at the same time. Therefore, for any of the calls supported by the Node.js SDK, you need to specify either userId or anonymousId every time.

A sample identify call is as shown:

rudder_analytics.identify('123456', {
'email': 'name@surname.com',
'name': 'John Doe',
'friends': 16
})

The identify method parameters are as described below:

FieldTypePresenceDescription
anonymousIdStringOptionalSets the user ID for cases where there is no unique identifier for the user. Either userId or anonymousId is required.
userIdStringOptional, if anonymousId is already setUnique identifier for a particular user in your database.
contextObjectOptionalDictionary of information that provides context about a message. However, it is not directly related to the API call.
integrationsObjectOptionalA dictionary containing the destinations to be either enabled or disabled.
timestampDateOptionalThe timestamp of the message's arrival.
traitsObjectOptionalDictionary of the traits associated with the user, such as nameor email .

Track

The track call lets you record the user actions along with their associated properties. Each user action is called an event.

A sample track call is shown below:

rudder_analytics.track('123456', 'Article Read', {
'title': 'The Independence',
'subtitle': 'Story of the Weak',
'author': 'John Doe'
})

The track method parameters are as described below:

NameTypePresenceDescription
user_idStringRequiredThe developer identification for your user
eventStringRequiredName of the event being performed by the user
propertiesObjectOptionalDictionary of the properties associated with a particular event.
contextObjectOptionalDictionary of information that provides context about a message. However, it is not directly related to the API call.
timestampDateOptionalThe timestamp of the message's arrival.
anonymous_idStringOptionalSets the user ID for cases where there is no unique identifier for the user. Either userId or anonymousId is required.
integrationsObjectOptionalA dictionary containing the destinations to be either enabled or disabled.

Page

The page call allows you to record the page views on your website along with the other relevant information about the viewed page.

A sample page call is as shown:

rudder_analytics.page('userid', 'Documentation', 'Sample Doc', {
'url': 'http://rudderstack.com'
})

The page method parameters are as described below:

FieldTypePresenceDescription
anonymousIdStringOptionalSets the user ID for cases where there is no unique identifier for the user. Either userId or anonymousId is required.
userIdStringOptional, if anonymousId is already setUnique identifier for a particular user in your database.
contextObjectOptionalDictionary of information that provides context about a message. However, it is not directly related to the API call.
integrationsObjectOptionalA dictionary containing the destinations to be either enabled or disabled.
nameStringRequiredName of the page being viewed.
propertiesObjectOptionalDictionary of the properties associated with the page being viewed, such as url and referrer
timestampDateOptionalThe timestamp of the message's arrival.

Screen

The screen call lets you record whenever your user views their mobile screen with any additional relevant information about the viewed screen.

A sample screen call is shown below:

rudder_analytics.screen('userid', 'Settings', 'Brightness', {
'from': 'Settings Screen'
})

The screen method parameters are as described below:

FieldTypePresenceDescription
anonymousIdStringOptionalSets the user ID for cases where there is no unique identifier for the user. Either userId or anonymousId is required.
userIdStringOptional, if anonymousId is already setUnique identifier for a particular user in your database.
contextObjectOptionalDictionary of information that provides context about a message. However, it is not directly related to the API call.
integrationsObjectOptionalA dictionary containing the destinations to be either enabled or disabled.
nameStringRequiredName of the screen being viewed.
propertiesObjectOptionalDictionary of the properties associated with the page being viewed, such as url and referrer
timestampDateOptionalThe timestamp of the message's arrival.

Group

The group call lets you associate an identified user to a group - either a company, project or a team and record any custom traits or properties associated with that group.

A sample group call is as shown:

rudder_analytics.group('userid', 'groupid', {
'name': 'Company',
'domain': 'IT'
})

The group method parameters are as follows:

FieldTypePresenceDescription
anonymousIdStringOptionalSets the user ID for cases where there is no unique identifier for the user. Either userId or anonymousId is required.
userIdStringOptional, if anonymousId is already setUnique identifier for a particular user in your database.
contextObjectOptionalDictionary of information that provides context about a message. However, it is not directly related to the API call.
integrationsObjectOptionalA dictionary containing the destinations to be either enabled or disabled.
groupIdStringRequiredUnique identifier of the group, as present in your database.
traitsObjectOptionalDictionary of the properties or traits associated with the group, such as email or name.
timestampDateOptionalThe timestamp of the message's arrival.

Alias

The alias call lets you merge different identities of a known user.

alias is an advanced method that lets you change the tracked user's ID explicitly. This method is useful when managing identities for some of the downstream destinations.

A sample alias call is as shown:

rudder_analytics.alias('previousid', 'userid')

The alias method parameters are as mentioned below:

FieldTypePresenceDescription
userIdStringOptional, if anonymousId is already setUnique identifier for a particular user in your database.
contextObjectOptionalDictionary of information that provides context about a message. However, it is not directly related to the API call.
integrationsObjectOptionalA dictionary containing the destinations to be either enabled or disabled.
previousIdStringRequiredThe previous unique identifier of the user.
traitsObjectOptionalDictionary of the properties or traits associated with the group, such as email or name.
timestampDateOptionalThe timestamp of the message's arrival.

For a detailed explanation of the alias call, refer to our RudderStack API Specification guide.

Flushing events

The Python SDK batches the events and flushes them in the background, for faster and more efficient operation. By default, the SDK flushes a batch of 100 events every 0.5 seconds since the last flush.

You can control the event flushing by tweaking the following parameters:

ParameterDescriptionDefault value
max_queue_sizeDefines the maximum queue size100
flush_intervalTime interval between two flush activities0.5s

You can also flush the events explicitly by using the SDK's flush() method to make sure no events are left in the queue.

A sample flush call is shown below:

rudder_analytics.flush()

The SDK blocks the calling thread until all the messages are flushed from the queue. Hence, you should avoid using it as a part of your request lifecycle.

Error handling

To handle errors that may occur when sending these events via rudder_analytics you can declare a callback called on_error.

def on_error(error, events):
print("Error response:", error)
rudder_analytics.on_error = on_error

Note that this callback will only return the errors that may occur with the HTTP request to the gateway. It will not return any errors that occur downstream.

Some of the common request responses are listed in the following table:

StatusCode
OK200
Request neither has anonymousId nor userId400
Invalid write key401
Invalid JSON400

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